Anaerobic thermal analysis is a treatment technology for collecting and recovering organic components from oily sludge. Its process principle is to volatilize the organic components in the oily sludge from the indirectly heated drum. The feed material has no direct contact with the burner flame or combustion gas, but the heat generated in the insulated furnace is conducted from the outer wall of the drum to the material, heating the material to a temperature at which organic matter can volatilize. The entire process takes place in an inert, oxygen-free atmosphere, which prevents the oxidation of hydrocarbons or other chemical components. The treated residue is cooled before being discharged from the anaerobic thermal analysis system. The steam generated in the thermal analysis system is sent to the steam recovery device for cooling. The non-condensable gas is returned to the oxygen-free thermal analysis unit or purified by activated carbon adsorption. The condensed oil enters the oil-water separator for separation. The whole process is sealed with inert gas to ensure preheating, and the thermal analysis process is carried out in an oxygen-free environment, which is safe and reliable. In the end, the discharge of waste gas, waste water, and solid waste will be minimized, or even harmlessly discharged.